|SwissProt ID Link
||Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light (UV), or DNA replication stalling, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates BRCA1, CHEK1, MCM2, RAD17, RPA2, SMC1 and p53/TP53, which collectively inhibit DNA replication and mitosis and promote DNA repair, recombination and apoptosis. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at sites of DNA damage, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Required for FANCD2 ubiquitination. Critical for maintenance of fragile site stability and efficient regulation of centrosome duplication.
||Nucleus. Nucleus, PML body. Chromosome. Depending on the cell type, it can also be found in PML nuclear bodies. Recruited to chromatin during S-phase. Redistributes to discrete nuclear foci upon DNA damage, hypoxia or replication fork stalling.
|Involvement in Disease
||Seckel syndrome 1: A rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by proportionate dwarfism of prenatal onset associated with low birth weight, growth retardation, severe microcephaly with a bird-headed like appearance, and mental retardation. The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Cutaneous telangiectasia and cancer syndrome, familial: A disease characterized by cutaneous telangiectases in infancy with patchy alopecia over areas of affected skin, thinning of the lateral eyebrows, and mild dental and nail anomalies. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing oropharyngeal cancer, and other malignancies have been reported as well. The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
||Phosphorylated; autophosphorylates in vitro.
||Ubiquitous, with highest expression in testis. Isoform 2 is found in pancreas, placenta and liver but not in heart, testis and ovary.
||Interacts with ATRIP. Forms a heterodimer with ATRIP. Binds to DNA, and to UV-damaged DNA with higher affinity. Interacts with RAD17, MSH2 and HDAC2. Present in a complex containing ATRIP and RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. Present in a complex containing CHD4 and HDAC2. Interacts with BCR-ABL after genotoxic stress. Interacts with EEF1E1. This interaction is enhanced by UV irradiation. Interacts with CLSPN and CEP164. Interacts with TELO2 and TTI1.
||Belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. ATM subfamily.
Contains 1 FAT domain.
Contains 1 FATC domain.
Contains 2 HEAT repeats.
Contains 1 PI3K/PI4K domain.